Serious heart inflammation spikes amid injection drug crisis

Inclusion of septic pulmonary infarcts as a minor criteria in the modified Duke’s criteria may therefore be inappropriate . Furthermore, the second line recommendation is tricuspid valve replacement. Bioprosthesis is the principal choice in TV replacement in IDUs, because mechanical valve needs long life anticoagulation . Other imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging , multislice computed tomography , and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography /computed tomography are also valuable for the diagnosis of IE .

  • Needs to review the security of your connection before proceeding.
  • “There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information.”
  • The start of an episode was defined as the date of the first positive blood culture or echocardiogram.
  • Few studies have described the long-term outcomes for PWID with IE and none have compared survival rates between those who were or were not operated on.

The successful management of a complicated case often requires the close cooperation of an infectious disease physician, a cardiologist, an addiction physician and occasionally a cardiac surgeon. This population of patients is a challenge for healthcare system because care for them is expensive and prolonged. A sharp and early attention to them avoids a huge health and financial burden.

Infective endocarditis in children and adolescents: a different profile with clinical implications

To sum up, these modified Duke criteria are useful, but they do not substitute the decision of a multidisciplinary team or of the “Endocarditis Team” that is defined later . Six-year experience with cryopreserved mitral homografts in the treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis in HIV-infected drug addicts. ▸ Case control study of a cohort of injection drug users that compares those with and without HIV infection.


In this study, researchers reported that 55 percent of patients received antibiotics but not surgery in 2012, a proportion that rose to 82 percent in 2017. Day said doctors are reticent to perform surgery if the initial infection is caused by drug abuse, based on the high likelihood that patients will become re-infected if they continue to inject drugs. In case of the right-sided IE, tricuspid valve is affected in 90% cases , whereas pulmonic valve represents about 10% from right-sided IE cases .

Statistical Analysis

Valve replacement in IDUs is correlated with greater risk for recurrent infection and redo surgery (re-operation) . It seems that mechanical prostheses and xenografts have similar outcomes . However, recurrence of IE is mainly unchanged for mechanical and bioprosthetic valves .

What is the most common cause of endocarditis?

  • Bacterial infection is the most common cause of endocarditis.
  • Endocarditis can also be caused by fungi, such as Candida.
  • In some cases, no cause can be found.

One might postulate that in the context of IDUs there is differential phagocytosis of S. Aureus and increased expression of cytokines or adhesion molecules by the endothelium on the right side, but there are no data at this time to support this hypothesis. Pseudomonas species may preferentially attack the right side in IDUs, but this preference for right-side valves is probably due to initial right-side endothelial damage secondary to particulate matter. The high rate of IE-related mortality suggests that the relapse and recurrence rates reported here may have underestimated the rate of reinfection. A major limitation of our project was that we did not collect detailed data on specific drug addiction services offered to PWID or their uptake. The principal finding of this study was that a low 30-day mortality relative to IE mortality in general did not translate into favorable long-term outcomes in a cohort of PWID-IE.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

But Cornerstone does not provide it because it is an iv drug use itself and “is trading one for the other,” said Webster Bailey, its executive director of marketing. When he became president of the Knoxville Academy of Medicine in 2015, he came up with the idea of the city’s hospital systems teaming up to offer addiction treatment to endocarditis patients. He had the perfect platform to push for it, he thought. Addiction has long afflicted rural east Tennessee, where the rolling hills and mountains are woven with small towns suffering from poverty and poor health. Prescribing rates for opioids are still strikingly high, and the overdose death rate in Roane County, where Ms. Whitefield lives, is three times the national average.

What is the difference between endocarditis and infective endocarditis?

Endocarditis is sometimes called infective endocarditis. It's a rare, but life-threatening inflammation of the lining inside your heart's chambers and valves (the endocardium). Endocarditis is usually caused by germs that get into your bloodstream and travel to your heart.